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Carbon footprint labels could soon be coming to restaurant menus

One example of such a dish was a couscous salad that could be ordered with beef (high emission), shawarma (poultry; medium emission), or falafel (low emission).

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smiling guest in restaurant reading the menu with waitress in background
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By Stephen Beech via SWNS

The carbon footprint of each dish could be added to restaurant menus so diners can choose the most "climate-friendly" option.

A study involving hypothetical restaurant menus suggests that climate-friendly default options and labels indicating the carbon footprint of each dish may influence dish selections and the resulting environmental effects.

The research is believed to be the first published study to simultaneously explore the effects of default options and carbon labels on food choice.

Previous research has shown that a person's food choices substantially affect their personal carbon footprint.

However, most studies examining factors that influence environmentally relevant food choices have focused on buying groceries eaten at home.

To broaden understanding, German researchers explored how restaurant menu design might influence diners’ climate-relevant choices.

They created nine hypothetical menus in order to test two design approaches: carbon labels indicating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions associated with each dish, and - for dishes with components that could be modified - setting the default component to either a low- or a high-emission option.

In an online study, 256 volunteers each selected one dish from each of the nine hypothetical menus, which varied in cuisine, presence of modifiable dishes, climate friendliness of default options, and presence of carbon labels.

One example of such a dish was a couscous salad that could be ordered with beef (high emission), shawarma (poultry; medium emission), or falafel (low emission).

Statistical analysis of the results showed that participants selected more climate-friendly dishes when carbon labels were present, as well as when defaults consisted of low- rather than high-emission options.

The findings, published in the journal PLOS Climate, are in line with results from earlier studies that explored the two approaches separately.

Study leader Ann-Katrin Betz, of Julius Maximilian University, said: "These findings suggest that restaurant operators could employ both carbon labels and low-emission default options in effort to lower their business’s carbon footprint.

"More research is needed to inform such strategies, including investigations into interactions between the two approaches, the impact of personal habits - such as vegetarianism - on menu choices, and menu choices in real-world settings."

She added: “If we want more climate-friendly restaurant visits, highlighting dish components on a menu can really be an important parameter because it communicates what is normal and recommended.

"It may also be one of the easiest things restaurant owners can do."

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